The exact cause is unknown. It's been linked to smoking, high blood pressure, being overweight and having a family history of AMD.
There are 2 types : DRY & WET
DRY AMD: Most common type. There is presence of yellow deposits or drusens in the macula. It causes gradual visual loss . Sometimes the dry type may convert into the wet form
WET AMD : Less common type but leads to faster visual loss. Unstable blood vessels grow from underneath the macula which leak blood and fluid into the retina. These blood vessels and their bleeding eventually form a scar, leading to permanent loss of central vision.
DRY AMD: There is no treatment per se for dry form of AMD. However, most patients benefit from nutritional supplements. Dark leafy greens, yellow fruits and vegetables, fish, and a balanced, nutrient-rich diet have been shown beneficial for people with AMD.
WET AMD: These patients are usually treated with Anti VEGF injections which are pushed into the eye. Injections help reduce the abnormal blood vessels that grow underneath the retina and also prevent leakage from the blood vessels.
Laser may also be used to treat some types of WET AMD.
In advanced cases of AMD, visual rehabilitation in the form of LVA ( Low vision aid devices ) can also be provided to the patients.